Development of structural organization of protein-synthesizing machinery from prokaryotes to eukaryotes
Ryazanov, A.G.; Ovchinnikov, L.P.; Spirin, A.S.
Bio Systems 20(3): 275-288
Though the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis are similar in the cells of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the eukaryotic translational machinery in the cell is arranged more intricately. One of the most striking characteristic features of the eukaryotic translational machinery is that the eukaryotic proteins involved in the translational process, such as initiation factors, elongation factors and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, in contrast to their prokaryotic analogs, possess a non-specific affinity for RNA. Due to the RNA-binding ability, these eukaryotic proteins can be compartmentalized on polyribosomes. In addition to the proteins of the translational apparatus, several other eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins can be also compartmentalized on polyribosomes; these proteins include glycolytic enzymes, steroid hormone receptors and intermediate filament proteins. Thus, the eukaryotic polyribosome is an element of the cytoplasmic labile structure on which various proteins can be compartmentalized and, consequently, different biochemical pathways can be integrated.