Direct and sex-specific stimulation by sex steroids of creatine kinase activity and DNA synthesis in rat bone
Sömjen, D.; Weisman, Y.; Harell, A.; Berger, E.; Kaye, A.M.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86(9): 3361-3365
A direct in vitro effect of 17 beta-estradiol (E2) was demonstrated on bone and cartilage cell energy metabolism. Sex-specific stimulation by E2 and testosterone was shown in diaphyseal bone of weanling rats. E2 (30 nM) caused, within 24 hr, a 70-200% increase in creatine kinase (CK; ATP:creatine N-phosphotransferase, EC 220.127.116.11) specific activity in ROS 17/2.8 rat osteogenic sarcoma cells, MC3T3-E1 mouse calvaria-derived cells, and rat fetal calvaria cells, and a 40% increase in rat epiphyseal cartilage cells. Stimulation of CK activity by E2 was dose and time dependent: in ROS 17/2.8 cells, a highly significant increase was found at 3 nM E2 and a greater than 100% increase in CK activity was found 1 hr after E2 administration. In female 20-day-old Wistar-derived rats, E2 (5 micrograms per rat) increased CK activity in diaphyseal bone by 82% within 1 hr of i.p. injection, with a maximal increase of 200% after 24 hr; neither the weakly estrogenic agonist 17 alpha-estradiol, testosterone, nor progesterone showed this effect. Conversely, in male rat diaphyseal bone, testosterone or dihydrotestosterone increased CK activity after 24 hr by approximately 100%, while E2 was ineffective. In epiphyseal cartilage, both E2 and testosterone increased CK activity. Stimulation of CK activity by sex hormones was paralleled by significant increases in [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA. Therefore, it is possible that direct sex-specific actions of gonadal steroids may contribute to stimulating bone growth and maintaining balanced bone turnover.