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Excessive intake of fats and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Effects of dietary intervention on plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol

Excessive intake of fats and cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Effects of dietary intervention on plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol

Medicina Clinica 92(2): 41-46

Preliminary evidences suggest that both the frequency of ischemic heart disease and the plasma cholesterol levels are increasing in the Spanish population, whose dietary habits are becoming progressively "westernized". In the present work we used the food frequency method to evaluate the dietary habits of 30 hypercholesterolemic subjects. These and another 65 free-living individuals of both sexes, ages 18-77 yrs, with plasma cholesterol 301 +/- 41 mg/dl or 7.80 +/- 1.06 mmol/l (means +/- SD) were submitted to a hypolipidemic diet similar to the mediterranean diet in order to assess effects on plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol. The usual diet contained (% kcal/day): total fat 37, saturated fat (S) 12, monoinsaturated fat 16 and poliinsaturated fat (P) 6, with P/S = 0.5 and a daily cholesterol intake of 506 mg. During dietary intervention, respective changes were: -7%, -5%, -1%, +2%, +0.6, and -304 mg. After a 3 - month dietary period, significant (p less than 0.001) decreases occurred in total plasma cholesterol (-40 mg/dl or -1.04 mmol/l, -14%), LDL-cholesterol (-35 mg/dl or -0.91 mmol/l, -16%) and triglycerides (-5 mg/dl or -0.28 mmol/l, -14%), while HDL-cholesterol and body weight did not change. Similar effects were obtained when diet was continued for 1 yr in a subgroup of 40 individuals. The responses of plasma cholesterol to dietary change had a normal distribution, with 17% hyporresponses and 15% hyperresponses. A marked decrease (-36%) of plasma triglycerides was observed in 12 subjects with IIb hyperlipidemia. The total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratios improved in both men and women.

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Accession: 040085903

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PMID: 2709886

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