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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone effects on placental hormones during gestation: I. Alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic somatomammotropin



Gonadotropin-releasing hormone effects on placental hormones during gestation: I. Alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic somatomammotropin



Biology of Reproduction 34(2): 245-254



The release of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin (alpha hCG), gonadotropin human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) in vitro from placentas of different gestational ages was studied. In addition, the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on these hormonal releases, as related to the gestational age of the placenta cultured and the dose of GnRH, was determined. The basal release of alpha hCG and hCG was greatest at 9-13 wk of gestation (1000-1500 ng/mg and 250-350 ng/mg, respectively). Lowest release rates were at term (28 ng/mg and 20 ng/mg, respectively). Hormonal release declined with extended culture, except from the cultures of 13- and 15-wk placentas, in which the initially high release continued throughout the 8 days of culture. The initial release of hCS was low at 6 wk, increased to maximum rates by 15 wk, and was similar to the initial rate of release at term. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulated the release of alpha hCG and hCG most dramatically in cultures of 16-wk and 17-wk placentas, where as much as a 400- and 250-fold increase, respectively, on Day 6 of culture was observed (p less than 0.0001). In term placenta cultures after 6 days in vitro, a 20-fold stimulation of alpha hCG and a 10-fold increase of hCG was effected by GnRH (p less than 0.001). The largest responses of alpha hCG and hCG to GnRH were observed when estrogen levels were low. Dose-related responses were observed in some placentas, yet in some instances, maximal effects were attained with all doses utilized in these studies (0.2 to 50 micrograms/ml). These data demonstrate that human placentas of different gestational ages have varying hormonogenic capabilities in vitro. The data also establish that synthetic GnRH is capable of stimulating alpha hCG and hCG production, but the degree and pattern of response to GnRH stimulation are related to the gestational age of the placental tissue and its time in culture. The most responsive period to exogenous GnRH stimulation of alpha hCG and hCG release was on Days 5 and 6 of culture, when basal estrogen release was very low. These data support the hypothesis that hCG release might be controlled by a chorionic GnRH stimulation and suggest that local steroid levels may modulate the hCG response to GnRH stimulation.

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Accession: 040224880

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PMID: 2420378

DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod34.2.245



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