Heme pocket interactions in cytochrome c peroxidase studied by site-directed mutagenesis and resonance Raman spectroscopy
Smulevich, G.; Mauro, J.M.; Fishel, L.A.; English, A.M.; Kraut, J.; Spiro, T.G.
Biochemistry 27(15): 5477-5485
ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2960 PMID: 2846039 DOI: 10.1021/bi00415a014
Resonance Raman spectra are reported for FeII and FeIII forms of cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) mutants prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and cloning in Escherichia coli. These include the bacterial "wild type", CCP(MI), and mutations involving groups on the proximal (Asp-235----Asn, Trp-191----Phe) and distal (Trp-51----Phe, Arg-48----Leu and Lys) side of the heme. These spectra are used to assess the spin and ligation states of the heme, via the porphyrin marker band frequencies, especially v3, near 1500 cm-1, and, for the FeII forms, the status of the Fe-proximal histidine bond via its stretching frequency. The FeII-His frequency is elevated to approximately 240 cm-1 in CCP(MI) and in all of the distal mutants, due to hydrogen-bonding interactions between the proximal His-175 N delta and the carboxylate acceptor group on Asp-235. The FeII-His RR band has two components, at 233 and 246 cm-1, which are suggested to arise from populations having H-bonded and deprotonated imidazole; these can be viewed in terms of a double-well potential involving proton transfer coupled to protein conformation. The populations shift with changing pH, possibly reflecting structure changes associated with protonation of key histidine residues, and are influenced by the Leu-48 and Phe-191 mutations. A low-spin FeII form is seen at high pH for the Lys-48, Leu-48, Phe-191, and Phe-51 mutants; for the last three species, coordination of the distal His-52 is suggested by a approximately 200-cm-1 RR band assignable to Fe(imidazole)2 stretching.