Improved therapeutic effects of interleukin 2 after the accumulation of lymphokine-activated killer cells in tumor tissue of mice previously treated with cyclophosphamide
Hosokawa, M.; Sawamura, Y.; Morikage, T.; Okada, F.; Xu, Z.Y.; Morikawa, K.; Itoh, K.; Kobayashi, H.
Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy Cii 26(3): 250-256
ISSN/ISBN: 0340-7004 PMID: 3260132 DOI: 10.1007/bf00199937
We investigated the combined effects of human recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) and cyclophosphamide (CY) on s.c. transplanted 3LL lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice. A total of 95% of the tumors were completely cured when CY (150 mg/kg, i.v.) was given on day 5 (5 days after tumor implantation) and IL-2 (5 x 10(4) Jurkat Units/day, i.p.) was then combined with it between day 6 and day 15. CY alone brought about the complete regression of tumors, although 60% of the mice died of local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis; IL-2 alone had no therapeutic effect. Satisfactory effects from the combination of CY and IL-2 were also obtained by 5 days administration of IL-2 between days 11 and 15, initiated 6 days after CY treatment, but not by that given before CY (days 1-5) or 1 day after CY (days 6-10). No therapeutic effects from IL-2 were observed when it was combined with other types of chemotherapy that showed not therapeutic effects by themselves. Nor were we able to observe any transplantation resistance to the rechallenge of 3LL tumor in cured mice. We particularly examined the lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells as we suspected that these were responsible for the development of active effector cells in the treated mice. LAK cell activity in fresh spleen cells was detected in mice treated with IL-2 alone but not in untreated mice nor in those treated with CY alone or CY plus IL-2. The number of LAK precursor cells in the spleen had increased on day 8 and on day 13 in untreated mice with 3LL, as compared with the incidence in normal mice, while the number of cells had decreased by day 18. On the other hand LAK precursor cells were suppressed on day 8 and tended to recover thereafter in CY-treated mice. Adoptively transferred LAK cells were found to accumulate in CY-treated tumors 2.5 times more densely than in untreated tumors. The preferential accumulation of LAK cells that had been activated systemically by the appropriately timed administration of IL-2 in tumor tissue was followed by the improved effects obtained by combined treatment with CY and IL-2.