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In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. XI. Tropism and differentiation regulate the infectious process of coronaviruses in primary explants of the rat CNS



In vivo and in vitro models of demyelinating disease. XI. Tropism and differentiation regulate the infectious process of coronaviruses in primary explants of the rat CNS



Virology 141(1): 89



The coronaviruses, ubiquitous in mammals, including man, manifest serotype-related predeliction for different tissues. This presentation deals with specificity of the murine viscerotropic MHV3 and neurotropic JHMV for explanted cells from the CNS of newborn, inbred, Wistar-Furth rats. An unambiguous tropism of MHV3 for astrocytes and JHMV for oligodendrocytes is demonstrated. With the latter cell-virus interaction, relatively small differences in spatial density of oligodendrocytes influence profoundly the duration of persistence and virus yield. The in vitro temporal program of oligodendrocyte differentiation, monitored by induction of a myelin-related enzyme, 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase, corresponds to that occurring in vivo (F. A. McMorris, J. Neurochem. 41, 506-515, 1983). It is complete within 15-21 days and is coincident with the onset of insusceptibility to disease caused by JHMV. Experimental elevation of intracellular cyclic-AMP levels, presumed to reflect oligodendrocyte differentiation, likewise suppresses JHMV replication without affecting that of MHV3 in astrocytes. On the basis of these data it is concluded that in vitro interaction of JHMV with oligodendrocytes reflects accurately the in vivo host control over the tropism and expression of this virus, thereby effecting the progressive, demyelinative disease, process.

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Accession: 040394882

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PMID: 2983498


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