Induction of vascular haemostasis by Nd:YAG laser light in melanin-rich and melanin-free tissue

Van der Zypen, E.; Fankhauser, F.; Lüscher, E.F.; Kwansniewska, S.; England, C.

Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology 79(3): 221-239

1992


ISSN/ISBN: 0012-4486
PMID: 1600840
DOI: 10.1007/bf00158253
Accession: 040422241

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Abstract
Haemostasis was effected in vessels of melanin-rich (MR: choroid) and melanin-free (MF: mesentery) rabbit tissue irradiated with a cw-Nd:YAG laser. The following parameters were employed: - pulse duration: 200 ms (MR) and 100 ms (MF); focal spot diameter: 200 microns (MR) and 80 microns (MF); pulse energies: 100-250 mJ (MR) and 0.5-1 J (MF); irradiances: 1.6-4.0 kW cm-2 (MR) and 1-2 x 10(2) kW cm-2 (MF). In melanin-rich tissue, laser energy is absorbed principally by melanin granules contained within the stromal melanocytes. The heat generated in these structures radiates into the surrounding tissue where it is dissipated. The damage thus incurred by the endothelium of blood vessels encompassed within this field triggers the haemostatic mechanism whereby blood flow is arrested. This effect is realized by the formation of an occluding plug of platelets, which is stabilized by the deposition of fibrin, particularly in capillaries, and to a lesser degree in larger vessels of the vascular lamina. In melanin-free tissue, haemoglobin serves as the primary site of energy absorption, which is thus shifted from the stroma to the vessel lumen. Irradiation of vessels in such tissue leads to thermocoagulation of plasma proteins and consequent stasis of blood flow.

Induction of vascular haemostasis by Nd:YAG laser light in melanin-rich and melanin-free tissue