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Infection by coronavirus JHM of rat neurons and oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte lineage cells during distinct developmental stages

Infection by coronavirus JHM of rat neurons and oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte lineage cells during distinct developmental stages

Journal of Virology 65(9): 5013-5028

Primary telencephalic cultures derived from neonatal Wistar Furth rats were able to support the growth of coronavirus JHM if a viable neuronal population was maintained. This occurred under serum-free defined, but not serum-supplemented, growth conditions. The importance of neurons in establishing infections in mixed cultures was confirmed by immunocytochemical and electron microscopic studies. Glia, although more abundant than neurons in these cultures, were less frequently infected during the initial 48 h postinoculation. The two glial lineages present in mixed telencephalic cultures were separated into type-1 astrocytes and oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (O-2A) lineage cells and individually assessed for their ability to support virus growth. Infection could not be established in type-1 astrocytes regardless of the culture conditions employed, consistent with our previous study (S. Beushausen and S. Dales, Virology 141:89-101, 1985). In contrast, infections could be initiated in selected O-2A lineage cells grown in serum-free medium. Virus multiplication was however significantly reduced by preconditioning the medium with mixed telencephalic or enriched type-1 astrocyte cultures, suggesting that intercellular interactions mediated by soluble factor(s) can influence the infectious process in O-2A lineage cells. This presumption was supported by eliciting similar effects with basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, two central nervous system cytokines known to control O-2A differentiation. The presence of these cytokines, which synergistically block O-2A cells from differentiating into oligodendrocytes was correlated with specific and reversible resistance to JHM virus (JHMV) infection. These data, combined with our finding that accelerated terminal differentiation of the oligodendrocyte phenotype confers resistance to JHMV (Beushausen and Dales, Virology, 1985), suggest that the permissiveness of O-2A cells for JHMV is restricted to a discrete developmental stage.

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Accession: 040424581

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PMID: 1651420

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