Infection rates and parasitic loads of Onchocerca volvulus, and other filariae, in Simulium sanctipauli s.l. and S. yahense in a rain-forest area of Liberia

Garms, R.

Tropical Medicine and Parasitology Official Organ of Deutsche Tropenmedizinische Gesellschaft and of Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit 38(3): 201-204


ISSN/ISBN: 0177-2392
PMID: 3432956
Accession: 040425356

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Simulium sanctipauli s.l. and S. yahense are common and widespread in the rain-forest zone of Liberia, but differ with regard to their biting densities and contribution to the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. Although, in a study area on the St. Pauli River, S. sanctipauli s.l. (presumably S. soubrense in the sense of Post) was the predominant ma-biting species (74.3% of 30,855 females examined), S. yahense was shown to be the important vector. While 1000 biting females of S. yahense carried 96 3rd stage larvae indistinguishable from O. volvulus, only 14 were found per 1000 females of S. sanctipauli s.l. Of the parous females (3135 S. sanctipauli s.l./1621 S. yahense) 23.8/39.9% harboured 1st and/or 2nd stage filarial larvae and 1.9/9.4% 3rd stage larvae of O. volvulus. Animal filariae of unknown origin, indicative of zoophily, were very common in S. sanctipauli s.l. (13.8%) but practically absent from S. yahense (0.5%). In spite of its poorer vectorial performance S. sanctipauli s.l. cannot be neglected as a vector because it may occur in high biting densities and contribute considerably to the transmission, in particular in the vicinity of the St. Paul River. The interplay of two vector species, which develop in different types of water-courses explains the overall high endemicity of onchocerciasis in the study area.