Mechanism of peroxidative activation of the bladder carcinogen 2-amino-4- (5-nitro-2-furyl) -thiazole (ANFT) : comparison with benzidine

Lakshmi, V.M.; Mattammal, M.B.; Zenser, T.V.; Davis, B.B.

Carcinogenesis 11(11): 1965-1970


ISSN/ISBN: 0143-3334
PMID: 2121382
DOI: 10.1093/carcin/11.11.1965
Accession: 040659243

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The mechanism of activation of the bladder carcinogen 2-amino-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole (ANFT) was investigated by comparison with benzidine. In comparison with benzidine, ANFT has a higher electrochemical potential (approximately 700 mV) and is less effective as a reducing co-substrate for either prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) or horseradish peroxidase. Activation was monitored by measuring binding to protein (BSA) and DNA. ANFT binding to protein was reduced by indomethacin, a fatty acid cyclooxygenase inhibitor; phenol and aminopyrine, competitive reducing co-substrates; ascorbic acid, an antioxidant; and glutathione, thioether conjugate formation. These results are consistent with those previously reported for benzidine and demonstrate a peroxide co-substrate requirement, interaction of peroxidase with amine, formation of reactive intermediates and inactivation of reactive intermediates. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), a radical trap, also reduced ANFT binding to protein. Similar results were observed whether activation by PHS or horseradish peroxidase was investigated. Peroxidative activation of ANFT and benzidine to bind DNA was inhibited by these test agents in a manner similar to that observed with protein except that DMPO did not reduce binding. In addition, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane and methyl viologen, which are radical traps, and methionine and p-nitrobenzyl-pyridine, which are strong nucleophiles, did not reduce ANFT or benzidine binding to DNA. These agents also did not prevent binding of benzidinediimine, the two-electron product of benzidine oxidation, to polydeoxyguanosine. Glutathione inhibited diimine binding by forming a conjugate. Results demonstrate that activation of ANFT to bind protein and DNA is similar to benzidine. Peroxidative activation of benzidine occurs by both one- and two-electron oxidation. A similar mechanism would explain ANFT binding to protein (one electron) and DNA (two electron).