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Mixed hematologic chimerism after allogeneic marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia is associated with a higher risk of graft rejection and a lessened incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease

Mixed hematologic chimerism after allogeneic marrow transplantation for severe aplastic anemia is associated with a higher risk of graft rejection and a lessened incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease

Blood 67(3): 811-816

Ninety-six patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a sex-mismatched, HLA-identical allogeneic sibling marrow transplant had sequential cytogenetic analyses performed to determine the incidence and implications of posttransplant mixed hematologic chimerism. Of the 96 patients, 56 (58.3%) became mixed chimeras with coexisting host and donor cells detected in peripheral blood or marrow 14 days or later after transplant, and 40 patients (41.7%) were complete chimeras with 100% donor-type hematopoietic cells. The incidence of mixed chimerism was independent of prior blood production transfusions and infusion of donor buffy coat. The rejection rate was significantly increased in the mixed chimeric group, particularly in patients not receiving buffy coat (14 of 36 rejecting), although overall, the majority (69.7%) retained their first graft. Rejection was seen almost exclusively in patients exposed to multiple transfusions before transplantation. If patients who reject their first graft are censored, the overall incidence of grades II through IV acute graft-v-host disease (GVHD) was significantly reduced in those with mixed chimerism. Transfused patients with mixed chimerism in particular were less likely to develop grades II through IV acute GVHD. The incidence of chronic GVHD was similar in the two groups and did not significantly influence survival. In this study, mixed chimerism persisted for up to 395 days posttransplant, either the first graft being rejected or, more commonly, hematopoiesis reverting to 100% donor-type cells. Mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism may persist in patients with aplastic anemia who have received matched allogeneic marrow transplants for significant periods before hematopoiesis reverts to donor cell type.

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Accession: 040710256

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PMID: 3511988

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