Neoplastic transformation of SV40-immortalized human urinary tract epithelial cells by in vitro exposure to 3-methylcholanthrene
Reznikoff, C.A.; Loretz, L.J.; Christian, B.J.; Wu, S.Q.; Meisner, L.F.
Carcinogenesis 9(8): 1427-1436
ISSN/ISBN: 0143-3334 PMID: 2841047 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/9.8.1427
Normal human urinary tract epithelial cells (HUC) were neoplastically transformed in vitro using a step-wise strategy. First, a partially transformed non-virus-producing cell line was obtained after infection of HUC with simian virus 40 (SV40). This cell line (SV-HUC-1) was demonstrated to be clonal in origin, as 100% of cells contained at least five of seven marker chromosomes. Marker chromosomes were formed by balanced translocations resulting in a 'pseudodiploid' cell line. SV-HUC-1 showed altered growth properties in vitro (e.g. anchorage independent growth) but failed to form tumors in athymic nude mice, even after 3 years in culture (80 passages). In the studies reported here, SV-HUC-1 at early passages (P15-P19) were exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) in three separate experiments. After a six-week post-treatment period of cell culture, cells were inoculated s.c. into athymic nude mice. In all experiments, MCA-treated SV-HUC-1 formed carcinomas in mice usually with a latent period of 5-8 weeks. These carcinomas showed heterogeneity with respect to histopathologies and growth properties in the mice and karyotypes. All the tumors retained SV-HUC-1 chromosome markers, but each independent transformant was aneuploid and contained unique new marker chromosomes. Chromosomes usually altered in tumor cells included numbers 3, 5, 6, 9, 11 and 13. Mutations in the ras family of cellular proto-oncogenes resulting in altered mobility of the p21 protein product were not detected in six cell lines established from independently derived tumors. It is not yet known whether other cellular proto-oncogenes are activated in these tumorigenic transformants. Neither control SV-HUC-1 (which were not exposed to MCA), nor early passage HUC exposed to MCA formed tumors when inoculated into mice. Thus, the tumorigenic transformation of HUC resulted from the combined actions of SV40 and MCA.