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Protective activity of antibodies to exotoxin A and lipopolysaccharide at the onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia in man



Protective activity of antibodies to exotoxin A and lipopolysaccharide at the onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia in man



Journal of Clinical Investigation 63(2): 276-286



Serum antibodies to exotoxin A and type-specific lipopolysaccharide were measured by passive hemagglutination in 52 patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicemia. Their comparative protective activities were evaluated by relating the titers of each at the onset of bacteremia to subsequent outcome. High acute serum antitoxin and antilipopolysaccharide titers (log2 reciprocal mean titers greater than 5) were associated with survival (76% of 17 with high vs. 46% of 24 with low antitoxin titers, P = 0.05; 85% of 13 with high vs. 48% of 29 with low antilipopolysaccharide titers, P = 0.03). In contrast, neither antibody titer was significantly associated (P less than or equal to 0.05) with patients' age or sex, severity of underlying disease, presence of leukopenia, steroid or immunosuppressive therapy. Despite a correlation between acute titers of the two antibodies (r = 0.33, P = 0.06), they appeared to protect independently and additively. Whereas 75% of 8 patients with high antitoxin titers and only 38% of 16 with low titers survived with low antilipopolysaccharide titers (P = 0.10), 100% (6/6), 73% (8/11), and 38% (6/16) survived, respectively, when both, one, or neither antibody was present in high titer (P = 0.01). Furthermore, the association between high acute serum antitoxin titers and survival was more pronounced in patients with rapidly fatal underlying disease (P = 0.06) and leukopenia (P = 0.12) than in more favorable prognostic and immune categories. These data indicate that serum antibodies to exotoxin A and lipopolysaccharide are found in most patients with P. aeruginosa septicemia and both are protective. Both antibodies may have therapeutic or prophylactic potential, whereas serum antiexotoxin A antibodies may be particularly beneficial in compromised hosts.

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Accession: 041108067

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PMID: 429553


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