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Reevaluation of the 9 compounds reported conclusive positive in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae aneuploidy test systems by the Gene-Tox Program using strain D61.M of Saccharomyces cerevisiae


Reevaluation of the 9 compounds reported conclusive positive in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae aneuploidy test systems by the Gene-Tox Program using strain D61.M of Saccharomyces cerevisiae



Mutation Research 260(2): 165-180



ISSN/ISBN: 0027-5107

PMID: 2046697

DOI: 10.1016/0165-1218(91)90005-7

The state of aneuploidy test methodology was appraised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1986 in analyzing published data. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae 9 chemicals were reported to be conclusive positive for aneuploidy induction in either mitotic or meiotic cells. We reevaluated these 9 chemicals using Saccharomyces cerevisiae D61.M, a strain that detects mitotic chromosome malsegregation. Acetone (lowest effective dose (LED): 40 microliters/ml), bavistan (LED: 5 micrograms/ml), benomyl (LED: 30 micrograms/ml) and oncodazole (LED: 4 micrograms/ml) induced a dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of chromosomal malsegregation. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS; highest tested dose (HTD): 1000 micrograms/ml) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS; HTD: 100 micrograms/ml) did not induce malsegregation but were both potent inducers of other genetic events, detected by an increase in the frequencies of cyhR cells. No increases in both endpoints (malsegregation and other genetic events) were observed after treatment of S. cerevisiae D61.M with cyclophosphamide (CP; HTD: 16 mg/ml) in the absence of S9, p-D,L-fluorophenylalanine (p-FPA; HTD: 250 micrograms/ml) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (TPA; HTD: 50 micrograms/ml). A marginal increase in the frequency of mitotic chromosome malsegregation was obtained with cyclophosphamide in the presence of S9. Thus our test results largely disagree with those previously published by various authors and taken as conclusive by EPA. We interpret the discrepancies to be due to lack of properly controlled testing (e.g., no check for multiple mutational events). Only with a careful test design it is possible to discriminate between chemicals inducing only chromosome loss and no other genetic effects (e.g., acetone, oncodazole), chemicals inducing a variety of genetic damage but no chromosome loss (e.g., EMS, MMS) and chemicals inducing neither chromosome loss nor other genetic events in yeast (e.g., TPA, p-FPA).

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