Release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha from macrophages. Enhancement and suppression are dose-dependently regulated by prostaglandin E2 and cyclic nucleotides

Renz, H.; Gong, J.H.; Schmidt, A.; Nain, M.; Gemsa, D.

Journal of Immunology 141(7): 2388-2393

1988


ISSN/ISBN: 0022-1767
PMID: 2844899
Accession: 041227765

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Abstract
PGE2 has previously been shown to suppress various leukocyte functions. In this study, we examined whether PGE2 would affect release of TNF-alpha from rat resident peritoneal macrophages. Two different, dose-dependent effects were observed: low PGE2 concentrations (0.1 to 10 ng/ml) stimulated, whereas higher concentrations (greater than 10 ng/ml) suppressed TNF-alpha release. PGE2-stimulated TNF-alpha production was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and was associated with an intracellular rise of cGMP. The importance of cGMP as an intracellular messenger for PGE2 was confirmed by the following evidence: (1) low PGE2 concentrations preferentially increased cGMP and not cAMP and (2) cGMP, either exogenously added or endogenously generated by sodium nitroprusside, were efficient stimulators of TNF-alpha production. In contrast, agents increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations such as PGE1, higher PGE2 doses, isoproterenol, and theophylline, all suppressed TNF-alpha synthesis. Only resident, but not casein-elicited or Corynebacterium parvum-activated macrophages, were stimulated by low PGE2 concentrations to increase TNF-alpha production. In tumor cytotoxicity assays, PGE2-activated macrophages were active only against TNF-alpha-sensitive target cells. These findings demonstrate that TNF-alpha synthesis in macrophages is up-regulated by cGMP and down-regulated by cAMP, which indicates that cyclic nucleotides act as intracellular messengers for extracellular signals of macrophage activation.