Resistance to dicloxacillin, methicillin and oxacillin in methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus detected by dilution and diffusion methods
Rosdahl, V.T.; Frimodt-Møller, N.; Bentzon, M.W.
Apmis Acta Pathologica Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica 97(8): 715-722
ISSN/ISBN: 0903-4641 PMID: 2669854 DOI: 10.1111/j.1699-0463.1989.tb00467.x
A total of 54 Staphylococcus aureus strains of varying methicillin resistance were investigated for their resistance to methicillin, oxacillin and dicloxacillin by different diffusion tests. Inhibition zones were measured around locally prepared paperdiscs with 10 micrograms methicillin, 5 and 10 micrograms oxacillin, 5 and 10 micrograms dicloxacillin, PDM paperdiscs with 10 micrograms methicillin or oxacillin and Neo-sensitabs tablets with methicillin or oxacillin. All diffusion tests were performed both with Mueller-Hinton agar and Danish Blood agar as well as at 37 degrees C and 30 degrees C and read after overnight incubation. Differences in zone diameter under different conditions were found to be independent of the susceptibility level of the strains. Seventeen of the strains were detected as methicillin-resistant (MRSA) by two methods including high inoculum and prolonged incubation at 30 degrees C. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 54 strains was determined by a plate dilution method at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. A 10 micrograms locally prepared methicillin disc detected all MRSA strains with no false reactions either at 37 degrees C or 30 degrees C on Mueller-Hinton agar. Investigations with oxacillin discs had to be performed at 30 degrees C or with a 5 microgram disc in order to detect correctly. PDM paperdiscs gave reactions identical to the corresponding locally prepared discs. Methicillin Neo-sensitabs detected all MRSA strains but also included a few susceptible strains among the resistant ones. Addition of blood increased the number of not-detected MRSA strains. All 17 MRSA strains were susceptible to dicloxacillin by the dilution method, and the disc diffusion test showed similar results. Dicloxacillin discs therefore did not detect the presence of MRSA strains. The implications of replacement of the methicillin/oxacillin disc by a dicloxacillin disc are discussed.