Specific interactions of histone H1 and a 45 kilodalton nuclear protein with a putative matrix attachment site in the distal promoter region of a cell cycle-regulated human histone gene
Pauli, U.; Chiu, J.F.; Ditullio, P.; Kroeger, P.; Shalhoub, V.; Rowe, T.; Stein, G.; Stein, J.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 139(2): 320-328
Protein-DNA interactions within the promoter of a cell cycle-regulated human H4 histone gene were examined by binding of 5'-end-labeled DNA segments to Western blots of nuclear protein fractions. Specific protein interactions were observed with DNA segments located between -500 bp and -1,070 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon and included a histone H1 binding segment flanked on both sides by binding sites for a 45 kD nuclear protein. This region of the gene contains a DNase I-sensitive site in the center (-720 to -820 bp), and sequence analysis revealed the presence of scaffold attachment sequences in the two flanking segments. Topoisomerase II consensus sequences and in vitro topoisomerase II cleavage sites were also detected in the two flanking segments. Our results suggest that the 45 kd nuclear protein may preferentially interact with these two segments of the H4 histone gene to mediate association with the nuclear matrix. The presence of negative regulatory elements in this putative matrix attachment region provides a basis for the speculation that such nuclear proteins are associated with alterations in gene-matrix interaction that are functionally related to gene expression.