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Structure-function studies on analogues of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: differential effects on leukemic cell growth, differentiation, and intestinal calcium absorption

Structure-function studies on analogues of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: differential effects on leukemic cell growth, differentiation, and intestinal calcium absorption

Cancer Research 50(21): 6857-6864

ISSN/ISBN: 0008-5472

PMID: 2208153

The hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], is an efficient stimulator of intestinal calcium absorption (ICA) and bone calcium mobilization (BCM) in humans and experimental animals and, as well, has been shown to be effective in inducing differentiation and inhibiting proliferation of leukemia cells. Thus, it has been proposed that analogues of 1,25(OH)2D3 could be synthesized which might allow for separation of biological functions, i.e., promote a differentiation of leukemia cells without a significant stimulation of ICA or BCM, both biological effects which can cause hypercalcemia in humans. Here we report the results of an evaluation of four analogues of the previously studied (Zhou et al., Blood, 74:82-92, 1989) 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-D3]; these analogues allowed evaluation of the consequences of (a) the presence or absence of six deuterium atoms on carbons 26 and 27 of the side chain and (b) the deletion or substitution by a fluorine atom of the 1 alpha-hydroxyl group on the A-ring. The 1,25(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-D3 analogue was found to be 7-fold more potent than the parent 1,25(OH)2D3 with respect to (a) inhibition of clonal proliferation of HL-60 cells as well as (b) induction of differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytes. Variants of this analogue which possessed the six deuterium atoms on carbons 26 and 27 were slightly less active than the 1,25(OH)2-16-ene-yne-D3. However, replacement of the 1 alpha-hydroxyl group by a 1-fluoro group, or the absence of the 1-hydroxyl group, resulted in analogues that were somewhat less effective than the parent 1,25(OH)2D3 in achieving these biological responses but more potent as inhibitors of the renal mitochondrial 25-OH-D3-1 alpha-hydroxylase, the site of endogenous production of 1,25(OH)2D3. ICA and BCM were assessed in vivo in vitamin D-deficient chickens, and each of the analogues was markedly less potent than the standard 1,25(OH)2D3. The analogue 1,25(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-D3 had 2% of the ICA and 3% of the BCM activity of the parent 1,25(OH)2D3. Absence of the 1 alpha-hydroxyl group or substitution of the 1-fluoro group for the 1-hydroxyl group significantly diminished both the ICA and BCM activity in comparison to 1,25(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-D3. Receptor binding studies indicated that 1,25(OH)2-16-ene-23-yne-D3 competed about 75% as effectively as 1,25(OH)2D3 for 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors present in both chick intestinal cells and HL-60 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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