Synergism of interleukin 6 and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in induction of myeloid differentiation of human leukemic cell lines
Duits, A.J.; Dimjati, W.; van de Winkel, J.G.; Capel, P.J.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology 51(3): 237-243
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with an important role in immunity. We analyzed the effect of recombinant human IL-6 in combination with 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vit. D3) on differentiation of the human myeloid leukemic cell lines U937 and HL-60 with respect to alterations in antigen expression and functional activity. Of a panel of antigens analyzed, only CD11b (the alpha chain of CR3), and CD14 (a cell surface protein recognizing the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein-lipopolysaccharide complex) had significantly increased expression. Expression of ICAM-1 (CD54), a ligand for LFA-1, was also found to be enhanced with a concomitant increase of ICAM-1 mRNA levels. Enhanced nonspecific esterase levels and induction of respiratory burst activity confirmed that cell differentiation was induced. Furthermore, IL-6 and Vit. D3 had a profound effect on functional activities, as shown by enhancement of rosetting between sheep erythrocytes, sensitized with C3bi (EAC), and either U937 or HL-60 cells. Also, phorbol myristate acetate-induced homotypic adhesion of U937, which is ICAM-1 dependent, was markedly induced by these agents. These results indicate an important role of IL-6 and Vit. D3 in myeloid cell function and development.