+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

The hemagglutinin/esterase gene of human coronavirus strain OC43: phylogenetic relationships to bovine and murine coronaviruses and influenza C virus



The hemagglutinin/esterase gene of human coronavirus strain OC43: phylogenetic relationships to bovine and murine coronaviruses and influenza C virus



Virology 186(1): 318-323



The complete nucleotide sequences of the hemagglutinin/esterase (HE) genes of human coronavirus (HCV) strain OC43 and bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCV) strain G95 were determined from single-stranded cDNA fragments generated by reverse transcription of virus-specific mRNAs and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. An open reading frame of 1272 nucleotides was identified as the putative HE gene by homology to the bovine coronavirus HE gene. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 424 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 47.7 kDa. Ten potential N-linked glycosylation sites were predicted in the HE protein of HCV-OC43 while nine of them were present in BRCV-G95. Fourteen cysteine residues were conserved in the HE proteins of both viruses. Two hydrophobic sequences at the N-terminus and the C-terminus may serve as signal peptide and transmembrane anchoring domain, respectively. The predicted HE protein of HCV-OC43 was 95% identical to the HEs of BRCV-G95 and other bovine coronaviruses, and 60% identical to the HEs of mouse hepatitis viruses. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the HE genes of coronaviruses and influenza C virus have a common ancestral origin, and that bovine coronaviruses and HCV-OC43 are closely related.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 041661799

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 1727608

DOI: 10.1016/0042-6822(92)90089-8


Related references

Comparative molecular epidemiology of two closely related coronaviruses, bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), reveals a different evolutionary pattern. Infection Genetics and Evolution 40: 186-191, 2016

Evolutionary history of the closely related group 2 coronaviruses: porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, bovine coronavirus, and human coronavirus OC43. Journal of Virology 80(14): 7270-7274, 2006

The acetyl-esterase activity of the hemagglutinin-esterase protein of human coronavirus OC43 strongly enhances the production of infectious virus. Journal of Virology 87(6): 3097-3107, 2013

Coronavirus isolates SK and SD from multiple sclerosis patients are serologically related to murine coronaviruses A59 and JHM and human coronavirus OC43, but not to human coronavirus 229E. Journal of Virology 38(1): 231-238, 1981

Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Journal of Virology 73(5): 3737-3743, 1999

Genomic relationship of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus to bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 as studied by the use of bovine coronavirus S gene-specific probes. Archives of virology40(7): 1215-1223, 1995

Antigenic relationships among proteins of bovine coronavirus, human respiratory coronavirus OC43, and mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59. Journal of Virology 51(2): 384-388, 1984

Prevalence of a novel bovine coronavirus strain with a recombinant hemagglutinin/esterase gene in dairy calves in China. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 66(5): 1971-1981, 2019

Heterogeneity of gene expression of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein of murine coronaviruses. Virology 183(2): 647-657, 1991

Coronaviruses and gastroenteritis: evidence of antigenic relatedness between human enteric coronavirus strains and human coronavirus OC43. Microbiologica 7(4): 315-322, 1984

Human coronavirus OC43 RNA 4 lacks two open reading frames located downstream of the S gene of bovine coronavirus. Virology 192(1): 355-360, 1993

Structure of coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase offers insight into corona and influenza virus evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(26): 9065-9069, 2008

Canine Respiratory Coronavirus, Bovine Coronavirus, and Human Coronavirus OC43: Receptors and Attachment Factors. Viruses 11(4):, 2019

Coronaviruses SD and SK share extensive nucleotide homology with murine coronavirus MHV-A59, more than that shared between human and murine coronaviruses. Virology 126(2): 669-677, 1983

Human enteric coronaviruses: antigenic relatedness to human coronavirus OC43 and possible etiologic role in viral gastroenteritis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 151(5): 796-803, 1985