The humoral renal antihypertensive system: nervous and hemodynamic effects in normotensive and unclipped renal hypertensive rats

Karlström, G.; Folkow, B.; Göthberg, G.

American Journal of the Medical Sciences 295(4): 258-262


ISSN/ISBN: 0002-9629
PMID: 3284350
DOI: 10.1097/00000441-198804000-00007
Accession: 041665101

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A series of studies of the humoral renal antihypertensive system in normotensive and 2K 1C-renal antihypertensive rats is outlined. The rapid structural upward resetting of the cardiovascular system in renal hypertensive rats was associated with a structural downward resetting in the vasculature of the hypotensive clipped kidney. Unclipping of this kidney caused a pronounced release of renomedullary depressor agents, explaining the rapid normalization of pressure seen after unclipping. This normalization of pressure masks a state of pronounced functional hypotension in a structurally still hypertensive cardiovascular system, characterized by marked splanchnic vasodilatation and a lack of neurogenic counter-regulation. Only when this state has lasted long enough to normalize the structural upward resettings, characteristic of hypertension does the cardiovascular system return to normal. Further, cross-circulation techniques have shown that the humoral antihypertensive agents suppress tonic sympathetic activity, thereby inhibiting normal reflex counter-regulation of their vasodilator effects. Presumably this occurs via both vagal cardiac afferents and central actions. Further, behavior and awareness become depressed during intense and prolonged renomedullary release. Finally, experiments for which a normotensive kidney is cross-circulated from a normotensive rat suggest that the humoral renomedullary antihypertensive system has its threshold of release set so low as to contribute to normal blood pressure regulation, presumably in reciprocal balance with the renocortical renin-angiotensin system. Stepwise pressure elevations increasingly enhance release of the depressor agents from the cross-perfused kidney.