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The hypophysis in the regulation of androgen and oestrogen dependent enzyme activities of steroid hormone metabolism in rat liver cytosol


The hypophysis in the regulation of androgen and oestrogen dependent enzyme activities of steroid hormone metabolism in rat liver cytosol



Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie 356(2): 127-134



ISSN/ISBN: 0018-4888

PMID: 1176083

DOI: 10.1515/bchm2.1975.356.1.127

In order to determine whether the gonadal and hypophyseal modes of regulation recently reported for the microsomal enzymes of hepatic steroid metabolism are also valid for cytoplasmic enzymes, three enzymes whose activities exhibit sex differences (male:female activity ratio shown in brackets), 5beta-reductase(1.7:1), 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase(5 : 1) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (4:1), as well as one enzyme whose activity shows no sex difference, 3beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase, were investigated after various interferences with the endocrine balance (gonadectomy, hypophysectomy, combination of both operations, administration of testosterone or oestradiol). From the results of this and a previous study the following statements can be made about the endocrine control of hepatic enzyme activities. Those enzymes whose activities show sex differences are either androgen or oestrogen dependent; the sex hormone acts in either an inductive or repressive manner. 1) Criteria for androgen dependency are the feminization of enzyme activity after testectomy or inhibition of testicular function by administration of oestradiol; masculinization of the enzyme activity after administration of testosterone to male or female castrates. Using these criteria the following enzymes investigated in this laboratory fall into this category: all microsomal enzymes which show sex differences in their activity (3alpha-, 3beta-, delta4-3beta, 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; cortisone alpha-reductase; steroid hydroxylases and 16alpha-hydroxylase) as well as the cytoplasmic 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Apart from the single exception of 20alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase the presence of the hypophysis is obligatory for the androgen to be effective. The hypophysis does not only work in a permissive manner, but participates in establishing the sex specific activity levels in a manner which is antagonistic to the androgen action. 2) Criteria for oestrogen dependency are that the female animal reacts to gonadectomy, as well as to the inhibition of ovarian function after testosterone administration, by a masculinization of the enzyme activities. After administration of oestradiol, but not gonadectomy, the male animal exhibits typical female activity. Using these criteria the cytoplasmic 5beta-reductase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase are oestrogen dependent. The repressive oestrogen effect observed on 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is antagonistic to hypophyseal action, whereas in the case of 5beta-reductase it is synergistic. 3) The activities of cytoplasmic 3beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase and microsomal 7alpha-hydroxylase show no sex differences and are not influenced by any interference with the endocrine balance.

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Accession: 041665605

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