The interplay between covalent and non-covalent regulation of glycogen phosphorylase. the role of different effectors of phosphorylase b on the phosphorylase b to a conversion rate

Morange, M.; Buc, H.

Biochimie 61(5-6): 633-643


ISSN/ISBN: 0300-9084
PMID: 497253
DOI: 10.1016/s0300-9084(79)80161-3
Accession: 041680412

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Glycogen phosphorylase b is converted to glycogen phosphorylase a, the covalently activated form of the enzyme, by phosphorylase kinase. Glc-6-P, which is an allosteric inhibitor of phosphorylase b, and glycogen, which is a substrate of this enzyme, are already known to have respectively an inhibiting and activating effect upon the rate of conversion from phosphorylase b to phosphorylase a by phosphorylase kinase. In the former case, this effect is due to the binding of glucose-6-phosphate to glycogen phosphorylase b. In order to investigate whether or not the rate of conversion of glycogen phosphorylase b to phosphorylase a depends on the conformational state of the b substrate, we have tested the action of the most specific effectors of glycogen phosphorylase b activity upon the rate of conversion from phosphorylase b to phosphorylase a at 0 degrees C and 22 degrees C : AMP and other strong activators, IMP and weak activators, Glc-6-P, glycogen. Glc-1-P and phosphate. AMP and strong activators have a very important inhibitory effect at low temperature, but not at room temperature, whereas the weak activators have always a very weak, if even existing, inhibitory effect at both temperatures. We confirmed the very strong inhibiting effect of Glc-6-P at both temperatures, and the strong activating effect of glycogen. We have shown that phosphate has a very strong inhibitory effect, whereas Glc-1-P has an activating effect only at room temperature and at non-physiological concentrations. The concomitant effects of substrates and nucleotides have also been studied. The observed effects of all these ligands may be either direct ones on phosphorylase kinase, or indirect ones, the ligand modifying the conformation of phosphorylase b and its interaction with phosphorylase kinase. Since we have no control experiments with a peptidic fragment of phosphorylase b, the interpretation of our results remains putative. However, the differential effects observed with different nucleotides are in agreement with the simple conformational scheme proposed earlier. Therefore, it is suggested that phosphorylase kinase recognizes differently the different conformations of glycogen phosphorylase b. In agreement with such an explanation, it is shown that the inhibiting effect of AMP is mediated by a slow isomerisation which has been previously ascribed to a quaternary conformational change of glycogen phosphorylase b. The results presented here (in particular, the important effect of glycogen and phosphate) are also discussed in correlation with the physiological role of the different ligands as regulatory signals in the in vivo situation where phosphorylase is inserted into the glycogen particle.