Bone matrix proteins in osteogenesis and remodelling in the neonatal rat mandible as studied by immunolocalization of osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein and alkaline phosphatase
Pinero, G.J.; Farach-Carson, M.C.; Devoll, R.E.; Aubin, J.E.; Brunn, J.C.; Butler, W.T.
Archives of Oral Biology 40(2): 145-155
The neonatal rat mandible was used as a model to study bone formation, mineralization, quiescence, and resorption, using immunolocalization and a variety of tissue-processing techniques. Monospecific antibodies for osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), alkaline phosphatase (AP) and alpha 2HS-glycoprotein (alpha 2HS-GP) were used on fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, fixed frozen tissue and unfixed frozen tissue. Immunostaining was correlated with mineral content by two procedures, the von Kossa and the morin techniques. Morin fluorescence was used with secondary immunostaining to provide a way of closely correlating bone matrix proteins and matrix mineralization. Co-immunolocalization procedures were used to compare the sites of bone proteins in the matrix. AP was found earliest during osteogenic cell differentiation, appearing in the preosteoblasts, followed by OPN and BSP, which first appeared in osteoblasts. alpha 2HS-GP expression was not observed in cells. The results provide clear evidence for the presence of OPN in osteoid, while BSP and alpha 2HS-GP were confined to the mineralized matrix. Immunostaining of bone proteins is highly technique-dependent: immunolocalization investigations required several methods of approach to ensure adequate demonstration of these proteins in cells and matrix. The results support the contention that osteopontin is multifunctional in bone metabolism, and that alpha 2HS-GP, though produced in the liver, is abundant in bone matrix and may also have a function in bone metabolism.