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Detection of coronavirus 229E antibody by indirect hemagglutination

Detection of coronavirus 229E antibody by indirect hemagglutination

Applied Microbiology 24(5): 703-707

Tannic-acid treated sheep erythrocytes (fresh or glutaraldehyde preserved) were sensitized with 229E antigens from human embryonic lung (RU-1) cell cultures. Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) antigen titers in 229E-infected cell cultures paralleled virus infectivity and complement fixation (CF) antigen titers. The identity of the IHA antigen was confirmed by testing extracts from inoculated and control cell cultures for ability to inhibit IHA. Also, significant increases in IHA antibody were demonstrated with acute and convalescent serum pairs from patients with proven 229E infections. A comparison of IHA, neutralization and CF titers for 229E antibodies was made on human sera drawn from different populations. The IHA and neutralization results were in agreement on 93% of the 129 sera found to be positive by at least one of three tests. The number of antibody titers detected by the CF test was insufficient to permit comparison. Hyperimmune sera from animals immunized with OC 43 did not react with 229E by IHA. Also no increase in IHA antibody was demonstrated with acute and convalescent serum pairs from patients with seroconversions to OC 43. These findings suggest that the IHA test provides (i) a rapid and sensitive method for serodiagnosis of 229E infections and (ii) a simple and inexpensive method for seroepidemiological studies.

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Accession: 042768046

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PMID: 4674373

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