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Genotoxicity of apomorphine and various catecholamines in the Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames test) and in tests for primary DNA damage using DNA repair-deficient B. subtilis strains (rec assay)

Genotoxicity of apomorphine and various catecholamines in the Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames test) and in tests for primary DNA damage using DNA repair-deficient B. subtilis strains (rec assay)

Mutation Research 137(1): 17-28

Apomorphine, N-nor-N-propyl-apomorphine, dopamine, L-DOPA, 6-hydroxydopamine and adrenaline were evaluated for genotoxicity using the Ames test and DNA repair-deficient and DNA repair-proficient Bacillus subtilis strains (rec assay, H17/M45; HLL3g/HJ-15). In the absence of an S9 liver homogenate, apomorphine induced frame-shift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium, mainly in strain TA1537; no indication of DNA-damaging effects in B. subtilis was observed. N-Nor-N-propyl-apomorphine was tested using strain TA1537 only and found to be mutagenic. Dopamine, L-DOPA, 6-hydroxydopamine and adrenaline were non-mutagenic when tested without S9, whereas they were all more toxic for DNA repair-deficient than for DNA repair-proficient B. subtilis strains, indicating a DNA-damaging potential. In a second set of experiments the mode of action of apomorphine and the relevance of the positive Ames test data were investigated. Glutathione in physiological concentrations reduced the mutagenic effect of apomorphine in a dose-dependent way, both in the presence and the absence of S9. S9 also reduced the mutagenicity of apomorphine. By comparing the effects of a complete S9 mix with those of a preparation without glucose-6-phosphate and NADP, it became clear that S9 also had an activating effect, overshadowed under standard conditions by its deactivating activity. Apomorphine was not mutagenic under anaerobic conditions. Superoxide dismutase and catalase reduced the mutagenic effect of apomorphine. All test conditions which reduced the mutagenic effect also inhibited the dark discoloration of the tester plates, indicating a retardation of apomorphine oxidation. It can, therefore, be concluded that oxidation of apomorphine leads to mutagenic products which induce frame-shift mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. This oxidation was prevented both by glutathione in concentrations well below physiological levels and/or by catalase and superoxide dismutase. Under these conditions, apomorphine was non-mutagenic in therapeutic concentrations as well as at higher dose levels. The possibility of genotoxic side effects occurring in patients treated with apomorphine as an emetic drug is therefore considered to be very unlikely.

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Accession: 043192721

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PMID: 6431280

DOI: 10.1016/0165-1218(84)90107-1

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