In vitro metabolism of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and 1-beta-2'-fluoroarabino-5-iodocytosine in normal and herpes simplex type 1 virus-infected cells
Kreis, W.; Damin, L.; Colacino, J.; Lopez, C.
Biochemical Pharmacology 31(5): 767-773
ISSN/ISBN: 0006-2952 PMID: 7082345 DOI: 10.1016/0006-2952(82)90461-0
Phosphorylation of 1-beta-D-2'-F-arabino-5-iodocytosine (FIAC), a newly synthesized pyrimidine nucleoside with potent antiherpesvirus activity, was compared with that of its parent compound, 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C). While ara-C was phosphorylated extensively by homogenates of normal, rapidly proliferating mouse tissues, FIAC was a poor substrate for the nucleoside kinase occurring in such normal tissues. With cell homogenates of noninfected Vero cells, thymidine (TdR) was phosphorylated about fifty and twenty times more efficiently than FIAC and ara-C, while infection of Vero cells with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) resulted in a 23-fold increase of TdR- and a 1270-fold increase of FIAC phosphorylation. In contrast, phosphorylation of ara-C was increased only by a factor of 2.6. While the reaction products obtained with homogenates of normal mouse tissues were 5'-mono-, di- and triphosphates of ara-C and FIAC, the reaction products with noninfected and infected Vero cell homogenates were predominantly monophosphates. In contrast, TdR was efficiently phosphorylated to its 5'-mono-, di- and triphosphates by such homogenates. In intact HSV-1-infected Vero cells. FIAC was rapidly taken up and phosphorylated to FIACMP and to an as yet unidentified metabolite. In contrast, TdR was taken up and phosphorylated to 5'-mono-, di- and triphosphates and ara-C was taken up moderately but metabolized poorly to its 5'-mono-, di- and triphosphates. Thus, in normal tissues, FIAC was a poorer substrate than ara-C for nucleoside kinases, but in intact HSV- 1-infected Vero cells FIAC was efficiently phosphorylated and thus behaved like a TdR analog, except that it was phosphorylated only to the 5'-monophosphate and a hitherto unidentified metabolite. The greatly increased phosphorylation of FIAC by HSV-1-infected Vero cells probably accounts, at least in part, for its great selectivity of action.