Mass spectrometric 13C/12C determinations to detect high fructose corn syrup in orange juice: collaborative study
Doner, L.W.; Bills, D.D.; Carro, O.; Drimmie, R.; Fritz, P.; Gearing, J.N.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Parker, P.L.; Reeseman, F.M.; Smith, B.N.; Ziegler, H.
Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists 65(3): 608-610
The 13C/12C ratios in orange juice are sufficiently uniform and different from those in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) so that the addition of HFCS to orange juice can be detected. HFCS averages -9.7% (parts per thousand) delta 13C, orange juice averages -24.5%, and mixtures of HFCS and orange juice possess intermediate values. One pure orange juice and 4 orange juice -HFCS mixtures containing from 25 to 70% orange juice were properly classified by 7 collaborators. Samples with delta 13C values less negative than -22.1%, 4 standard deviations from the mean of pure juices, can, with a high degree of confidence, be classified as adulterated. Samples with values more negative than -22.1% must be considered unadulterated with HFCS, because pure orange juices possess a range of delta 13C values. The 13C/12C mass spectrometric method was adopted official first action for detecting HFCS in orange juice.