+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Oral immunization of dogs with purified cholera toxin, crude cholera toxin, or B subunit: evidence for synergistic protection by antitoxic and antibacterial mechanisms

Oral immunization of dogs with purified cholera toxin, crude cholera toxin, or B subunit: evidence for synergistic protection by antitoxic and antibacterial mechanisms

Infection and Immunity 37(2): 687-694

The immunogenicity and safety of purified cholera toxin (CT), its B subunit, and a crude culture filtrate of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (CrT) were compared in dogs immunized orally and challenged with virulent V. cholerae. CT and CrT caused marked protection in two- or three-dose regimens. Protection due to CT occurred only with doses that caused transient, sometimes severe, diarrhea in most dogs; this protection was proportional to the peak antitoxin response in jejunal mucosa and lasted at least 15 weeks. In contrast, minimum protective doses of CrT contained much less cholera toxin, caused very mild diarrhea in only 21% of the dogs, and evoked protection that was greater than predicted from the modest jejunal antitoxin response. B subunit caused smaller jejunal antitoxin responses than did similar doses of CT and was poorly protective, the 50% protective dose being >40-fold greater than that of CT. Two observations indicated that protection due to CrT involved synergy between antibacterial and antitoxic immune responses. First, the 50% protective dose of CrT was 24-fold and >36-fold smaller than the 50% protective doses of its CT and non-CT antigenic components, respectively, when tested separately. Second, protection was greater in CrT-immunized dogs than in CT-immunized dogs for a given mucosal antitoxin response. Low doses of CrT evoked serotype-specific protection, indicating that the serotype-specific O somatic antigen contributed significatly to antibacterial protection. These results suggest that a simple, effective, nonliving oral vaccine for cholera based on combined antibacterial and antitoxic immunity can probably be achieved. However, further studies are needed to determine how a protective antitoxic response can be evoked without causing diarrhea during immunization.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 043845896

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 6889574

Related references

Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) entrapped in microparticles shows comparable immunogenicity to CTB mixed with whole cholera toxin following oral immunization. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Amsterdam) 119(2): 251-255, 1995

Synergistic action of cholera toxin B subunit (and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit) and a trace amount of cholera whole toxin as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine. Vaccine 12(5): 419-426, 1994

Protection against experimental cholera in the rat. A study on the formation of antibodies against cholera toxin and desensitization of adenylate cyclase after immunization with cholera toxin. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 75(2): 143-148, 1984

Protection of rats against cholera toxin and cholera-like enterotoxins by immunization with enteric-coated cholera toxin. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 6(3): 199-204, 1986

The adjuvant effect of cholera toxin cholera toxin b subunit and glutaraldehyde modified cholera toxin on the mucosal immune response of rabbits to 2 acetylaminofluorene thyroglobulin conjugates. FASEB Journal 4(3): A500, 1990

Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Plos One 8(2): E57269-E57269, 2013

Evaluation of purified cholera toxins and toxoids as immunizing agents against cholera and development of a new technique for measuring cholera toxin toxoid and anti toxin. U S Government Research & Development Reports 71(5): 43, 1971

Antitoxic immunity to cholera in dogs immunized orally with cholera toxin. Infection and Immunity 27(2): 632-637, 1980

Protective Oral Cholera Vaccine Based on a Combination of Cholera Toxin B Subunit and Inactivated Cholera Vibrios. Wachsmuth, I K, Blake, P A, Olsvik, O Vibrio cholerae and cholera: Molecular to global perspectives: 415-424, 1994

Cautionary note on the use of the B subunit of cholera toxin as a ganglioside GM1 probe: detection of cholera toxin A subunit in B subunit preparations by a sensitive adenylate cyclase assay. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 42(3): 143-152, 1990

Gut mucosal, salivary and serum antitoxic and antibacterial antibody responses in Swedes after oral immunization with B subunit-whole cell cholera vaccine. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 75(1): 38-43, 1984

Cholera toxin zonula occludens toxin and accessory cholera enterotoxin gene-negative Vibrio cholerae non-01 strains produce the new cholera toxin. Current Science (Bangalore) 70(12): 1041-1043, 1996

Priming immunization against cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile toxin by a cholera toxin short peptide-beta-galactosidase hybrid synthesized in E. coli. Embo Journal 4(12): 3339-3343, 1985