Supplemental protein sources for steers fed corn-based diets: I. Ruminal characteristics and intestinal amino acid flows

Ludden, P.A.; Cecava, M.J.

Journal of animal science 73(5): 1466-1475

1995


ISSN/ISBN: 0021-8812
PMID: 7665378
DOI: 10.2527/1995.7351466x
Accession: 044473607

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Abstract
Five cannulated Holstein steers (302 +/- 23 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with extra observations to evaluate the effect of supplemental protein source on postruminal flow and intestinal disappearance of N and amino acids (AA). Diets were formulated to contain 12.5% CP using cracked corn (70%), ground corn cobs (15%), and supplement (15%). Except for an all-urea supplemented control diet, 40% of the total dietary CP was supplied by soybean meal (SBM), a high ruminal escape soybean meal (SoyPLUS; SP), or a corn gluten meal/blood meal combination (CB; 50:50 on a CP basis). The steers were fed twice daily and DMI was restricted to 2.0% of initial BW. Supplementation with CB increased (P < .10) non-microbial N flow at the duodenum but tended to decrease microbial N flow such that no differences (P > .10) in total N flows at the duodenum were detected among treatments. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not affected by treatment but was greatest for urea/and tended to decrease when SP and CB were fed (21.8, 20.5, 19.5, and 15.7 g of N/kg of OM truly digested for urea, SBM, SP, and CB, respectively). A possible shortage of ruminally degradable N, as evidenced by low ruminal NH3 N concentrations (3.6, 4.2, 3.9, and 2.1 mg/dL for urea, SBM, SP, and CB respectively), or other factors, may have limited microbial protein synthesis. However, microbial N flows averaged 60.0% of duodenal N flow across treatments. Duodenal flow of essential, nonessential, and total AA were similar (P > .10) among treatments and averaged 293, 361, and 653 g/d, respectively). Lysine and methionine flows did not differ (P > .10) and averaged 41.6 and 13.3 g/d, respectively. The source of supplemental protein had no impact (P > .10) on small intestinal disappearance of AA or total tract N disappearance. Feeding proteins resistant to ruminal degradation may have limited microbial protein production, resulting in a shift in the proportion of metabolizable protein arriving at the small intestine from dietary and microbial origins. These results suggest that corn-based diets may be limiting in ruminally degradable N, especially when high ruminal escape protein sources are fed as supplemental CP.