The role of the adenine nucleotide translocator in oxidative phosphorylation. a theoretical investigation on the basis of a comprehensive rate law of the translocator
Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes 14(1): 45-61
ISSN/ISBN: 0145-479X PMID: 6292176 DOI: 10.1007/bf00744078
A minimum model of adenine nucleotide exchange through the inner membrane of mitochondria is presented. The model is based on a sequential mechanism, which presumes ternary complexes formed by binding of metabolites from both sides of the membrane. The model explains the asymmetric kinetics of ADP-ATP exchange as a consequence of its electrogenic character. In energized mitochondria, a part of the membrane potential suppresses the binding of extramitochondrial ATP in competition with ADP. The remaining part of the potential difference inhibits the back exchange of internal ADP for external ATP. The assumption of particular energy-dependent conformational states of the translocator is not necessary. The model is not only compatible with the kinetic properties reported in the literature about the adenine nucleotide exchange, but it also correctly describes the response of mitochondrial respiration to the extramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio under different conditions. The model computations reveal that the translocation step requires some loss of free energy as driving force. The size of the driving force depends depends on the flux rate as well as on the extra- and intramitochondrial ATP/ADP quotients. By both quotients the translocator control the export of ATP formed by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.