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A new case of congenital leukemia with leukemia cutis

A new case of congenital leukemia with leukemia cutis

Sangre 40(6): 513-516

Congenital leukaemia is a condition occurring very rarely. In a recent review in 1993, 175 cases are reported, 25-30% of them being well documented as leukaemia cutis. We reported a new case of congenital leukaemia diagnosed as an acute non lymphoblastic leukaemia M4 (FAB) and diagnosed at birth. It involves a newborn female at 42 weeks of gestational age. The most relevant clinical features were hepatomegaly and cutaneous petechial lesions along with a generalized distribution of nodules. From the blood peripheral count, leukocytosis is observed (177 x 10(9)/L) with 48% blasts of myeloid immunophenotype. The coagulation studies were consistent with a disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. A biopsy carried out on a cutaneous nodule, revealed diffuse dermoepidermic infiltration by immature cells of myeloid lineage, with cellularity and count similar to that of bone marrow and peripheral blood. The karyotype in the peripheral blood was normal. Infectious and immune causes were excluded as well as constitutional illnesses associated with unstable haematopoiesis. The family rejected treatment with chemotherapy and the baby died on day 53 of life due to progressive leukocytosis and concurrent infection. Our case, like 80% of the cases reported, is of myeloid origin and confirms the fatal evolution of untreated congenital leukaemia.

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Accession: 045079222

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PMID: 8850237

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