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A review of coronary arteriography- and contrast media-induced ventricular fibrillation

A review of coronary arteriography- and contrast media-induced ventricular fibrillation

Acta Radiologica. Supplementum 399: 100-104

Since the first animal coronary arteriogram in 1933 there have been many innovations in techniques and contrast media. From 1933 through the late 1950s the procedures used involved nonselective aortic injections and the use of acetylcholine to slow the heart. The first selective coronary arteriogram in animals was performed by West, Kobayashi & Guzman in 1958 (45) and in 1959 Guzman & West (7) observed ventricular fibrillation with some media but not others. In 1967 Judkins (14) described the catheter designs for right and left coronary catheterizations that we still use today. In the 1970s and 80s many authors observed the ionic monomeric contrast media reduced plasma calcium causing fibrillation and myocardial depression. Supplementation of ionic media with calcium was shown to moderate these adverse effects. Almen's vision of low osmolality contrast media and the creation of metrizamide (1) stimulated the rapid development of monomeric and dimeric nonionic contrast media. The ionic dimeric medium ioxaglate also provided low osmolality. Digital frame grabbers and computers lead to the development of digital subtraction angiography and new applications of arteriography, frequently using dilute media. Unexpectedly, during prolonged right coronary arteriography in animals, dilute nonionic media were found to produce increased fibrillation as compared to dilute ionic media. The addition of sodium to nonionic media significantly reduced the incidence of fibrillation. Animal studies with the nonionic medium iodixanol supplemented with sodium and calcium (Visipaque) have demonstrated minimal incidences of fibrillation and myocardial depression.

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Accession: 045106840

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PMID: 8610503

DOI: 10.1177/0284185195036s39912

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