Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry's 1997 priority list of hazardous substances. Latent effects--carcinogenesis, neurotoxicology, and developmental deficits in humans and animals
Ostrowski, S.R.; Wilbur, S.; Chou, C.H.; Pohl, H.R.; Stevens, Y.W.; Allred, P.M.; Roney, N.; Fay, M.; Tylenda, C.A.
Toxicology and Industrial Health 15(7): 602-644
ISSN/ISBN: 0748-2337 PMID: 10677885 DOI: 10.1177/074823379901500702
In support of Superfund re-authorization legislation, the Division of Toxicology of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepared a chemical-specific consultation document for Congress that identified those chemicals with carcinogenic, neurological, or developmental adverse effects having a latency period longer than 6 years. The review was limited to the top 50 substances listed on ATSDR's 1997 Priority List of Hazardous Substances (Priority List). Among the top 50 chemicals, a review of the technical literature indicated that 38 (76%) were classified as "reasonably anticipated," "possibly," or "probably" capable of causing cancer in humans, based either on human and animal data. Eight chemicals (16%) had well-established cancer latency periods in humans of 6 years or more following exposure. Three substances (6%)--arsenic, creosote, and benzidine--had data indicating latency periods longer than 6 years. The technical literature review likewise confirmed the potential for neurological and developmental effects with a latency of 6 years. Twenty-seven (54%) of the top 50 substances caused acute and/or chronic neurotoxic effects; a number of these also caused neurological effects that persisted beyond 6 years (or the equivalent in animal studies) such as: behavioral problems, neurological deficiencies, reduced psychomotor development, cognitive deficiencies, and reduced IQ. Twenty-eight substances (56%) caused adverse developmental effects in offspring of exposed individuals or animals including increased fetal and infant mortality, decreased birth weights and litter sizes, and growth delays. Latency periods for related chemicals are expected to be similar due to structural and toxicological similarities.