Apolipoprotein A-IFIN (Leu159-->Arg) mutation affects lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activation and subclass distribution of HDL but not cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts
Miettinen, H.E.; Jauhiainen, M.; Gylling, H.; Ehnholm, S.; Palomäki, A.; Miettinen, T.A.; Kontula, K.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 17(11): 3021-3032
ISSN/ISBN: 1079-5642 PMID: 9409289 DOI: 10.1161/01.atv.17.11.3021
We showed earlier that the apolipoprotein A-I Leu159-->Arg mutation (apoA-IFin) results in dominantly inherited hypoalphalipoproteinemia. In the present study we investigated the effect of the apoA-IFin mutation on lipoprotein profile, apoA-I kinetics, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activation, and cholesterol efflux in vitro. Carriers (n = 9) of the apoA-IFin mutation exhibited several lipoprotein abnormalities. The serum HDL cholesterol level was diminished to 20% of normal, and nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of HDL showed disappearance of particles at the 9.0- to 12-nm size range (HDL2-type) and the presence of small 7.8- to 8.9-nm (mostly HDL3-type) particles only. HDL3-type particles from both the mutation carriers and nonaffected family members were similarly converted to large, HDL2-type particles by phospholipid transfer protein in vitro. Studies on apoA-I kinetics in four affected subjects favored accelerated catabolism of apoA-I. Experiments with reconstituted proteoliposomes showed that the capacity of apoA-IFin protein to activate LCAT was reduced to 40% of that of the wild-type apoA-I. The impact of the apoA-IFin protein on cholesterol efflux was examined in vitro using [3H]cholesterol-loaded human fibroblasts and three different cholesterol acceptors: (1) total HDL, (2) total apoA-I combined with phospholipid, and (3) apoA-I isoform (apoA-IFin or wild-type apoA-I isoform 1) combined with phospholipid. ApoA-IFin did not impair phospholipid binding or cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to any of the acceptors used. Only one of the nine apoA-IFin carriers appears to have evidence of clinically manifested atherosclerosis. In conclusion, although the apoA-IFin mutation does not alter the properties of apoA-I involved in promotion of cholesterol efflux, its ability to activate LCAT in vitro is defective. In vivo, apoA-IFin was found to be associated with several lipoprotein composition rearrangements and increased catabolism of apoA-I.