CD4-independent, CCR5-dependent infection of brain capillary endothelial cells by a neurovirulent simian immunodeficiency virus strain
Edinger, A.L.; Mankowski, J.L.; Doranz, B.J.; Margulies, B.J.; Lee, B.; Rucker, J.; Sharron, M.; Hoffman, T.L.; Berson, J.F.; Zink, M.C.; Hirsch, V.M.; Clements, J.E.; Doms, R.W.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94(26): 14742-14747
ISSN/ISBN: 0027-8424 PMID: 9405683 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.94.26.14742
Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are targets of CD4-independent infection by HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains in vitro and in vivo. Infection of BCECs may provide a portal of entry for the virus into the central nervous system and could disrupt blood-brain barrier function, contributing to the development of AIDS dementia. We found that rhesus macaque BCECs express chemokine receptors involved in HIV and SIV entry including CCR5, CCR3, CXCR4, and STRL33, but not CCR2b, GPR1, or GPR15. Infection of BCECs by the neurovirulent strain SIV/17E-Fr was completely inhibited by aminooxypentane regulation upon activation, normal T cell expression and secretion in the presence or absence of ligands, but not by eotaxin or antibodies to CD4. We found that the envelope (env) proteins from SIV/17E-Fr and several additional SIV strains mediated cell-cell fusion and virus infection with CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cells. In contrast, fusion with cells expressing the coreceptors STRL33, GPR1, and GPR15 was CD4-dependent. These results show that CCR5 can serve as a primary receptor for SIV in BCECs and suggest a possible CD4-independent mechanism for blood-brain barrier disruption and viral entry into the central nervous system.