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Cerebrovascular assessment of the high-risk patient: the role of transcranial Doppler ultrasound

Cerebrovascular assessment of the high-risk patient: the role of transcranial Doppler ultrasound

Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 10(1): 3-14

With increased attention to the causes and effects of neurologic injury related to cardiopulmonary bypass anesthesia and surgery, multiple modality examination and monitoring of cerebral function and perfusion in the perioperative period may prove to be advantageous. Transcranial Doppler examination and monitoring is inexpensive, noninvasive, safe, provides unique information about the functional status of the intracranial circulation, and complements the duplex Doppler study of the extracranial carotid vessels of the neck for preoperative evaluation of the surgical patient. The transcranial Doppler examination permits quantitation of blood flow velocity of the intracranial vessels, evaluation of autoregulatory capacity and vasomotor reserve, determination of symmetry of flow velocity in the circle of Willis, assessment of collateral circulatory capacity, examination of vessels not accessible to the duplex Doppler and serves as a baseline for intraoperative monitoring and the postoperative examination. Noninvasive, unilateral or bilateral, continuous monitoring of brain blood flow velocity intraoperatively or postoperatively with trending, storage, and correlation with other physiologic variables provides evidence of cerebral perfusion, occurrence and rate of cerebral embolism, and continuous monitoring of therapeutic interventions. A review of the incidence of stroke and neuropsychologic deficit after bypass surgery is focused on parameters amenable to diagnosis using transcranial Doppler. Patient-specific risk factors for neurologic injury derived from previous studies are discussed as well as risk factors that are related to anesthetic and surgical management and equipment. A description of Doppler technology and the correlation of transcranial Doppler findings with angiography and radionucleotide scans establishes the accuracy of the Doppler examination. The preoperative examination, provocative tests of vasomotor reserve, the evaluation of cerebral collateral circulation, and examples of Doppler applications are discussed.

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Accession: 045470440

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 8634384

DOI: 10.1016/s1053-0770(96)80173-x

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