Characterization of human activating transcription factor 4, a transcriptional activator that interacts with multiple domains of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) -binding protein
Liang, G.; Hai, T.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 272(38): 24088-24095
We demonstrate that human activating transcription factor 4 (hATF4), a member of the activating transcription factor/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (ATF/CREB) family of transcription factors, is a potent transcriptional activator in both mammalian cells and yeast. The N-terminal 113 amino acids of hATF4 activate transcription efficiently, and unexpectedly, the C-terminal bZip DNA binding domain of hATF4 also activates transcription, albeit weakly. Our results indicate that hATF4 interacts with several general transcription factors: TATA-binding protein, TFIIB, and the RAP30 subunit of TFIIF. In addition, hATF4 interacts with the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) at four regions: 1) the KIX domain, 2) a region that contains the third zinc finger and the E1A-interacting domain, 3) a C-terminal region that contains the p160/SRC-1-interacting domain, and 4) the recently identified histone acetyltransferase domain. Interestingly, both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of hATF4 interact with the above general transcription factors and CBP, providing a mechanistic explanation for their ability to activate transcription. Consistent with its role as a coactivator, CBP potentiates the ability of hATF4 to activate transcription. The potential significance of the interaction between hATF4 and multiple factors is discussed.