Comparison of single extraction procedures, using either conventional shaking or microwave heating, and the Tessier sequential extraction method for the fractionation of heavy metals from environmental samples
Pérez Cid, B.; de Jesus Gonzalez, M.; Fernández Gómez, E.
Analyst 127(5): 681-688
ISSN/ISBN: 0003-2654 PMID: 12081048 DOI: 10.1039/b110943j
The conventional four-step sequential extraction method and the EDTA and acetic acid single extraction procedures were applied to sewage sludge and sediment samples. The results obtained with these samples for Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn using the Tessier method were compared with those supplied by the two single extraction procedures employed. In addition, the Tessier method was also applied to a reference material, CRM 483, and these results were also compared with the certified EDTA and acetic acid values for this sample. As a result, good agreement was found between the metal contents released in the first three fractions of the Tessier method and those leached by the simpler single extraction procedures for the most of the elements studied. Subsequently, the conventional EDTA and acetic acid extraction methods were accelerated by means of microwave energy, in order to reduce the operating time. The extraction efficiency of the first three fractions of the Tessier method was compared with that obtained using the optimised microwave single extraction procedures and only in sewage sludge and CRM 483 samples were satisfactory results found for all the elements studied, except Cr and Pb. This means that the microwave single extraction procedures optimised in this work could be employed as screening methods to evaluate rapidly the easiest mobilizable heavy metals in these samples, although more samples should be analysed to determine their general applicability. The application of the accelerated single extraction procedures to a reference material, CRM 483, provided satisfactory results for all the elements studied, except for Cr in both methods and for Pb in the acetic acid extracts.