Contrast-enhanced Doppler hemodynamics for noninvasive assessment of patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction
Dini, F.L.; Traversi, E.; Franchini, M.; Micheli, G.; Cobelli, F.; Pozzoli, M.
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography Official Publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 16(2): 124-131
ISSN/ISBN: 0894-7317 PMID: 12574738 DOI: 10.1067/mje.2003.8
We sought to evaluate whether contrast-enhanced Doppler echocardiography can improve the noninvasive estimation of hemodynamic variables in left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Right-heart catheterization and Doppler echocardiography were simultaneously performed in 45 patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction: 29 +/- 7%) in sinus rhythm. Noninvasive variables were estimated as follows: cardiac output by pulsed Doppler of LV outflow tract; pulmonary capillary wedge pressure by a regression equation including mitral and pulmonary venous flow variables; pulmonary artery mean pressure from the calculated systolic and diastolic pulmonary artery pressures; and pulmonary vascular resistance from the previous measurements according to hemodynamic definition. Contrast enhancement increased the feasibility of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure estimation from 60% to 100%; of pulmonary artery mean pressure from 42% to 91%; and of pulmonary vascular resistance from 42% to 91%. Strong correlations between invasive and noninvasive hemodynamic variables were found: r = 0.90, standard error of the estimate (SEE) 0.45 L/min for cardiac output; r = 0.90, SEE 3.1 mm Hg for pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; r = 0.93, SEE 3.7 mm Hg for pulmonary artery mean pressure; and r = 0.85 SEE 1.0 Wood units for pulmonary vascular resistance. Weaker correlations for PAMP (r = 0.82, SEE 5.6 mm Hg) and PVR (r = 0.66, SEE 1.7 Wood units) were apparent prior to contrast enhancement. When patients were separated according to PVR threshold values, the contrast allowed the correct placement of 88% of patients, whereas only 57% were correctly assigned without it. The contrast increased accuracy and reduced interobserver variability in the evaluation of hemodynamic variables. The contrast-enhanced study is capable of increasing the value of noninvasive hemodynamic assessment in LV dysfunction.