Control of viremia and prevention of simian-human immunodeficiency virus-induced disease in rhesus macaques immunized with recombinant vaccinia viruses plus inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles
Willey, R.L.; Byrum, R.; Piatak, M.; Kim, Y.B.; Cho, M.W.; Rossio, J.L.; Bess, J.; Igarashi, T.; Endo, Y.; Arthur, L.O.; Lifson, J.D.; Martin, M.A.
Journal of Virology 77(2): 1163-1174
An effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will very likely have to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses to control HIV-1 strains of diverse geographic and genetic origins. We have utilized a pathogenic chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) rhesus macaque animal model system to evaluate the protective efficacy of a vaccine regimen that uses recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV-1 structural proteins in combination with intact inactivated SIV and HIV-1 particles. Following virus challenge, control animals experienced a rapid and complete loss of CD4(+) T cells, sustained high viral loads, and developed clinical disease by 17 to 21 weeks. Although all of the vaccinated monkeys became infected, they displayed reduced postpeak viremia, had no significant loss of CD4(+) T cells, and have remained healthy for more than 15 months postinfection. CD8(+) T-cell and neutralizing antibody responses in vaccinated animals following challenge were demonstrable. Despite the control of disease, virus was readily isolated from the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all vaccinees at 22 weeks postchallenge, indicating that immunologic control was incomplete. Virus recovered from the animal with the lowest postchallenge viremia generated high virus loads and an irreversible loss of CD4(+) T-cell loss following its inoculation into a naïve animal. These results indicate that despite the protection from SHIV-induced disease, the vaccinated animals still harbored replication-competent and pathogenic virus.