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Distraction osteogenesis for lengthening of the hard palate: Part I. A possible new treatment concept for velopharyngeal incompetence. Experimental study in dogs



Distraction osteogenesis for lengthening of the hard palate: Part I. A possible new treatment concept for velopharyngeal incompetence. Experimental study in dogs



Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 100(7): 1635-1647



Many procedures have been described to correct velopharyngeal incompetence. Significant complications can occur, and the results may not be satisfactory. If the short soft palate has satisfactory muscle function and if it could be moved toward the posterior pharyngeal wall by distraction osteogenesis of the hard palate, an entirely new concept of treatment for velopharyngeal incompetence would be available. The object of the present study was to explore the possibility of osteogenesis occurring in the hard palate in dogs after gradual distraction (callus distraction). Six adult, mix-bred dogs were anesthetized, and the palatal mucosa was elevated. A midpalatal transverse osteotomy and two lateral osteotomies were performed. Tantalum bone markers for cephalometric analysis were placed, and an individually fabricated, orthodontic-like distraction device with an expansion screw in the sagittal direction was inserted. The device was stabilized on the premolars and fixed to the palatal bone with titanium miniscrews. Gradual distraction began after a latency period of 10 to 18 days. The rate of the distraction varied from 0.25 to 0.75 mm per day. The device was left in place for 6 to 8 weeks after expansion to allow for bony consolidation. Assessment was by direct examination, cephalograms, computed tomography, and histology with bone labeling. Impressions of the jaws were taken preoperatively and after device removal to examine plaster cast changes in the dental occlusion. Cephalometric and computed tomographic scan analysis demonstrated a distraction of up to 8 mm. All gaps were filled with de novo osteogenesis. Comparison of the plaster casts revealed no change in the occlusion. At 1 month after distraction, the computed tomographic scan showed the first signs of ossification of the experimental gap from the anterior and posterior bone ends. After 4.5 months ossification was almost complete with a small translucent zone in the middle of the experimental gap. After 7 months ossification was complete.

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Accession: 045811240

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9393459

DOI: 10.1097/00006534-199712000-00001


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