+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Double immunoenzymatic APAAP staining for the detection of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes

Double immunoenzymatic APAAP staining for the detection of leukemia-associated immunophenotypes

Journal of HematoTherapy & Stem Cell Research 8(6): 635-643

Detection of unusual or aberrant cell immunophenotype with flow cytometry is the basis for the immunologic recognition of minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with acute leukemia (AL). In this study, we have shown that the double immunocytochemical alkaline phosphatase antialkaline phosphatase (APAAP) staining technique also makes possible the detection of leukemic cells with unusual (leukemic) combinations of antigens (ULCA) both at diagnosis and during follow-up of patients with ULCA+ AL. The applicability of double APAAP was analyzed on bone marrow (BM) samples obtained from 12 patients (8 with AML, 3 with ALL, and 1 with undifferentiated acute leukemia [AUL]) randomly chosen from a larger group of 22 ULCA+ patients treated at our center in a 3-year period (22% observed ULCA+ AL frequency). The percentages of ULCA+ BM cells before chemotherapy were in the range of 5%-60%, which dropped to 0%-7% in 10 patients who achieved remission (range 0%-7%, p < 0.01). However, these cells could also be found 60 days after the initiation of therapy, ranging from 0%-2% of all nucleated cells. In 2 of 10 patients who achieved remission, 2% ULCA+ BM cells were found on days 35 and 60 after initiation of chemotherapy, and this finding was followed by relapse on days 110 and 270. However, the other 8 patients remained in remission despite positive finding of ULCA+ BM cells ranging from 0.2%-2% on at least one occasion. In 2 patients with AML FAB-M3 and cytomorphologic remission, the finding of ULCA+ cells by double APAAP correlated with the molecular finding of PML/RARalpha junction. These results indicate that double APAAP staining can identify leukemic cells in samples with a cytomorphologic pattern consistent with remission, but its applicability in detection of MRD awaits additional studies on a larger number of patients with ULCA+ AL.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 045833129

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 10645771

DOI: 10.1089/152581699319803

Related references

Two-colour immunoenzymatic technique using sequential staining by APAAP to evaluate two cell antigens. Journal of Clinical Pathology 45(3): 206-209, 1992

Double immunoenzymatic staining for the simultaneous detection of Epstein-Barr virus induced antigens. Histochemistry 84(1): 15-17, 1986

Simultaneous detection of cytokine and immunophenotype at the single cell level by immunoenzymatic double staining. Histochemical Journal 28(6): 461-466, 1996

Description of a sequential staining procedure for double immunoenzymatic staining of pairs of antigens using monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Immunological Methods 93(2): 265-274, 1986

Immunoenzymatic double staining in diagnostic pathology. Pathology Research & Practice 182(4): 524-525, 1987

Application of a novel method of double APAAP staining with subsequent quantitative image analysis to the examination of integrin expression in undifferentiated-type gastric carcinomas. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 57(12): 1183-1193, 2009

Double immunoenzymatic staining employing rat and mouse monoclonal antibodies. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 186: 767-775, 1985

Improved APAAP immunocytochemical staining-trace cytotoxicity test plate method for detection of cell surface antigens. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 32(1): 143-4, 147, 2003

Monoaminergic innervation of peptidergic neurons in the rat hypothalamus a double immunoenzymatic staining. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 14(2): 1181, 1988

Pattern associated leukemia immunophenotypes and measurable disease detection in acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome with mutated NPM1. Cytometry. Part B Clinical Cytometry 96(1): 67-72, 2019

Immunoenzymatic labeling of monoclonal antibodies for surface antigens of T-cells in BALF using immune complexes of APAAP. Journal of China Medical University 22(2): 116-119, 1993

Phenotyping of proliferating lymphocytes in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and related lesions by the double immunoenzymatic staining technique. American Journal of Pathology 127(2): 279-287, 1987

Quantifying the smooth muscle content of the prostate using double-immunoenzymatic staining and color assisted image analysis. Journal of Urology 147(4): 1167-1170, 1992

Enrichment of human bone marrow mononuclear phagocytes and characterization of macrophage subpopulations by immunoenzymatic double staining. Histochemical Journal. 30(4): 285-291, Il, 1998

Detection of megakaryocyte colonies in plasma clot cultures by immunoenzymatic staining. Haematologica 83(2): 189-190, 1998