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Eco-epidemiology of malaria in Niamey and in the river valley, the Republic of Niger, 1992-1995



Eco-epidemiology of malaria in Niamey and in the river valley, the Republic of Niger, 1992-1995



Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 90(2): 94-100



The Niger valley is an original ecosystem in the Sahelian belt. For more than 25 years it has been affected by dryness and rainfall decreased by more than 30% as compared to the period 1950-1960. Moreover the demography has sharply increased and the capital town Niamey grew by 10% a year. The Niger valley including Niamey has about 1 million inhabitants. Three sites have been selected to study the status of malaria and its evolution for the last 30 years: Niamey, Karma 40 km on the N.W. on the river and the nearby fossil valley of Fatay-Karma. In the sixties the malaria vectors were An. gambiae, An. arabiensis et An. funestus. The last species was no more harvested after 1970 because its breeding places have been destroyed on the combined action of dryness and human activities. In Niamey, parasite index was very low in the dry season but grew by 5 to 10 times during the rainy season to reach 50% in certain corners. The highest plasmodic index (PI) were recorded along the river banks where vectors are found all the year long. It decreases in the central part of the city and becomes very low in some peripheral suburban settlements. This situation is quite different of most of the cities of the area where prevalence decrease from outskirts to city centre. The serology confirms these points. In Karma, along the Niger and despite a perennial transmission, the PI removes low as well as the malaria antibodies, probably because of the self use of antimalarial drugs by the population. In Fatay-Karma the PI of 23.9% after the rainy season drops to 6% in the dry one. In data prior to 1970 the PI was over 60%, reaching 89% in young children of Niamey suburbs. Obviously it has strongly decreased. It is very likely that this is due partly to the disappearance of An. funestus after the drought.

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Accession: 045861951

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PMID: 9289261


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