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Evaluation of impaction on bone nail and bone plate of the pertrochanteric fracture



Evaluation of impaction on bone nail and bone plate of the pertrochanteric fracture



Revue de Chirurgie Orthopedique et Reparatrice de l'Appareil Moteur 83(3): 243-250



Impaction in pertrochanteric fracture sites is a well known phenomenon; the screw-plate system is designed to stabilise the fracture. Although easier to use, the risk with the nail-plate system is postoperative penetration of the nail into the joint. The present study was conducted to determine the exact conditions of the impaction, and to identify possible ways to improve the nail-plate system. The study included 129 cases of pertrochanteric fracture, excluding sub-trochanteric fractures. All fractures were fixed with a 130 degrees angulated nail-plate. In all cases, consolidation was uneventful after 8 to a 12 weeks. The anatomical type of fracture, i.e. stable or unstable, was determined according to the size of the intermediary fragment, including the trochanter minor. The displacement was measured as the difference between the length of the nail and the length of the femoral head and neck measured along the axis of the femoral neck. The parameters examined were: fracture stability degree, bony mineralisation (Singh Index), nail length, femoral neck, length nail position in the femoral head, and above all, fracture reduction. All these parameters were computerised and compared using Stat View statistics software. Impaction was observed in 43 per cent of cases. Among these, 25 per cent were rated as slight (1 to 5 mm), 18 per cent as moderate (over 5 mm) and 9 per cent as marked (10 to 25 mm). Impaction was associated with demineralisation of the bone tissue (p = 0.001). The anatomical classification of the fracture was not a determining factor (p = 0.19), as marked displacements were also recorded in stable fractures. A posterior and inferior position of the intramedullary nail in the femoral head is one of displacement determining factors (p = 0.004, two-sided 1 test). Valgus over-correction is the most important factor, especially when it is associated with bony demineralisation (p = 0.02) and an inadequately centred intramedullary pin (p = 0.02). Shorter the femoral neck, and shorter the nail, greater was the frequency of nail articular penetration. The risk of articular penetration therefore reaches 15 per cent in petrochanteric fractures repaired with a nail plate, set at an angle of 130 degrees. A short neck, a cervicodiaphyseal angle superior to 140 degrees, and demineralisation are the three determining parameters. Stable or unstable fracture has in fact little effect on displacement incidence, and therefore does not, on its own, warrant the use of a prosthesis in comminuted fractures. The authors compared their results to literature on progressive sliding system: the incidence of complications associated with this type of fracture treatment is identical, but the determining parameters are different. The study shows that the nail-plate is efficient and provides simple and solid fracture fixation. However, this osteosynthesis material needs to be modified in order to improve its fixation in the femoral head.

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Accession: 046010521

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PMID: 9255360


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