Evidence for a role of delayed death and genomic instability in radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human hybrid cells

Mendonca, M.S.; Temples, T.M.; Farrington, D.L.; Bloch, C.

International Journal of Radiation Biology 74(6): 755-764


ISSN/ISBN: 0955-3002
PMID: 9881721
DOI: 10.1080/095530098141032
Accession: 046019717

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HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells have been developed into a model of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. The authors' studies indicate that the loss of putative tumour suppressor loci on fibroblast chromosomes 11 and 14 is evident after radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. How these fibroblast chromosomes/putative tumour suppressor loci are lost after radiation exposure is currently being investigated. It has been shown that the appearance of transformed foci correlates with the onset of the delayed reduction in plating efficiency or delayed death. This delayed death appears to be the result of the onset of a novel delayed apoptosis in the irradiated progeny beginning around day 8 post-irradiation. It was proposed that the reduction in plating efficiency and subsequent neoplastic transformation are all the result of a radiation-induced genomic instability. The instability process has two relevant outcomes: (1) cell death due to the induction of a delayed apoptosis in cells; and (2) neoplastic transformation of a small subset of survivors that have lost fibroblast chromosomes 11 and 14 (tumour suppressor loci) but either have not acquired enough genetic damage to induce the apoptotic response or have undergone molecular changes allowing them to bypass apoptosis. Data from the genomic instability and delayed death literature will be reviewed in terms of relevance to radiation-induced neoplastic transformation. New data are presented which demonstrate that use of growth media supplemented with a specific lot of calf serum was found to increase the number of cells undergoing radiation-induced neoplastic transformation, compared with standard serum after a fixed dose of radiation. This correlates with an increase in delayed death in the irradiated progeny which the authors propose is the result of increased genomic instability post-irradiation of cells grown in this serum. Preliminary data are presented indicating that a delayed apoptosis is also seen after high-energy He- particle exposure in this system.