Food intake, dietary habits and nutritional status of the population of Reus (X) : Evolution of the diet and the contribution of macronutrients to energy intake (1983-1999) by age and sex
Capdevila, F.; Llop, D.; Guillén, N.; Luque, V.; Pérez, S.; Sellés, V.; Fernández-Ballart, J.; Martí-Henneberg, C.
Medicina clinica 115(1): 7-14
ISSN/ISBN: 0025-7753 PMID: 10953830 DOI: 10.1016/s0025-7753(00)71448-5
To study the evolution of the diet and the nutritional intake between 1983 and 1999, by age and sex. We performed a series of analysis of the food intake on a representative sample of the population of Reus (aged 10-69 years). Dietary intake was estimated using the 24-hours recall method. In 1999 the sample size was 839 individuals, 41% of them having taken part in the studies since 1983. Results are shown as mean (standard deviation). In 1999, the energy intake was 2524 (582) kcal in men aged 35-44 years (n = 57), and 1827 (490) kcal in women (n = 95) (p < 0.001 between sexes). The energy intake decreases with age (significant trend [p < 0.001] between 15-69 years) and it is higher in men than in women in all the age groups studied. When comparing similar age groups, we observe that this energy intake has not changed significantly since 1983. Between 1983 and 1999 the contribution of the macronutrients to the total energy intake has become more similar between ages and sexes. In 1999, in men aged 35-44 years a 15.6% of the energy came from proteins, 42% from fat and 42.5% from carbohydrates; in women of the same age: a 17.3% of the energy came from proteins, 42.4% from fat and 40.3% from carbohydrates). During this period we observed, however, remarkable changes in the diet which imply the increasing participation of the dairy products, vegetables and meat in the energy intake, or the significant decrease of the role of tubers, eggs and visible fat. Our population maintains an energy intake without significant changes, and it presents a trend towards a progressive uniformity of the nutritional balance between the different ages and sexes, although there are significant changes in some components of the diet.