Glucose activates protein kinase C-zeta /lambda through proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phospholipase D: a novel mechanism for activating glucose transporter translocation
Bandyopadhyay, G.; Sajan, M.P.; Kanoh, Y.; Standaert, M.L.; Quon, M.J.; Reed, B.C.; Dikic, I.; Farese, R.V.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(38): 35537-35545
Insulin controls glucose uptake by translocating GLUT4 and other glucose transporters to the plasma membrane in muscle and adipose tissues by a mechanism that appears to require protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta/lambda operating downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In diabetes mellitus, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is diminished, but with hyperglycemia, uptake is maintained but by uncertain mechanisms. Presently, we found that glucose acutely activated PKC-zeta/lambda in rat adipocytes and rat skeletal muscle preparations by a mechanism that was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but, interestingly, dependent on the apparently sequential activation of the dantrolene-sensitive, nonreceptor proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2; components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, including, GRB2, SOS, RAS, RAF, MEK1 and ERK1/2; and, most interestingly, phospholipase D, thus yielding increases in phosphatidic acid, a known activator of PKC-zeta/lambda. This activation of PKC-zeta/lambda, moreover, appeared to be required for glucose-induced increases in GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in adipocytes and muscle cells. Our findings suggest the operation of a novel pathway for activating PKC-zeta/lambda and glucose transport.