+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Handling and aflatoxin contamination of white maize in Costa Rica

Handling and aflatoxin contamination of white maize in Costa Rica

Mycopathologia 138(2): 77-89

Projects funded by International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and the European Commission have enabled the examination of more than 3000 samples of maize collected from all regions of Costa Rica at different stages, from the growing crop through storage to final sale, and at different water contents. Contamination with Aspergillus flavus was frequent and about 80% of samples contained more than 20 ng aflatoxins g(-1) grain. Average contamination with aflatoxins in the Brunca Region was > 274 ng g(-1) while that in other regions was < 70 ng g(-1). Except in Brunca region, where it averaged 376 ng g(-1), contamination of grain from commercial sources was slightly less than of that from farms (< or = 15 ng g(-1)). It appeared that samples kept on the cob after harvest contained almost no aflatoxin while shelled samples were frequently highly contaminated. Experiments were therefore done in Brunca and Huetar Atlantic Regions, utilising 34 experimental maize crops to study in detail the development of A. flavus and aflatoxin from before harvest, through postharvest treatment before drying and through storage for six months. A. flavus was isolated more frequently from maize shelled immediately after harvest than from that kept on the cob until it could be dried, and from more samples from the Brunca Region than from the Huetar Atlantic Region. Samples harvested with > or = 18% water content often contains > 70% of grains infected with A. flavus but sometimes there were few grains infected. As found in the initial survey, more aflatoxin contamination developed in shelled maize than in that handled on the cob during the period from harvesting to drying, especially if the delay was more than 5 days, and more in Brunca than in Huetar. Shelled grain contained 400-800 ng aflatoxin g(-1) in Brunca but < 100 ng g(-1) in Huetar while grain kept on the cob contained < 30 ng g(-1), even with > 18% water content. Incidence of Fusarium spp. exceeded 50% except where A. flavus colonized more than 80% of grains.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 046211365

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9454095

DOI: 10.1023/a:1006818822013

Related references

Aflatoxin contamination in corn samples due to environmental conditions, aflatoxin-producing strains and nutrients in grain grown in Costa Rica. Journal Of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 42(11): 2551-2555, 1994

Aflatoxin content in sorghum and maize used as animal feed in Costa Rica. Agronomia Costarricense 12(1): 67-71, 1988

Aflatoxin contamination of maize in Thailand. 2. Aflatoxin contamination of maize harvested in the rainy seasons of 1984 and 1985. Proceedings of the Japanese Association of Mycotoxicology (24): 53-56, 1986

Surveys on postharvest handling, Aspergillus flavus infection, and aflatoxin contamination of maize collected from farmers and traders. ACIAR Technical Reports Series ( 37): 38-53, 1996

Bird protection in Costa Rica Observations on the bird fauna of Costa Rica, part 2 Vogelschutz in Costa Rica Beobachtungen der Vogelwelt Costa Ricas, Teil 2. Gefiederte Welt. Oktober; 12510: 381-384, 2001

Technical proposal for territory management within the context of biodiversity conservation in Costa Rica the GRUAS project The Ministry for the Energy and Environment of Costa Rica, National System of Conservation Areas Propuesta tecnica de ordenamiento territorial con fines de conservacion de biodiversidad en Costa Rica proyecto GRUAS Ministerio del Ambiente y Energia de Costa Rica, Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservacion. Wildlife Conservation Society Working Paper. setiembre; 10 i-ix, 1-114, 1996

Time budget of the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari in a rain forest of Costa Rica Presupuesto de tiempo del chancho cariblanco Tayassu pecari en un bosque humedo de Costa Rica. Biotropica. March; 341: 136-143, 2002

Aflatoxin in Costa Rica. Aflatoxin in maize: proceedings of the workshop El Batan Mexico April 7-11-1986 sponspored by CIMMYT UNDP and USAID: 292, 1986

Tico H-l and Tico H-2, two new white maize hybrids for Costa Rica. Programa cooperativo centroamericano para el mejoramiento de cultivos alimenticios. XIIIa reunion anual, San Jose, Costa Rica, febrero 28-marzo 4 de, 1967. 22 p, 1967

Organismos de los arrecifes Coralinos de Costa Rica 1. Lista de corales petreos (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Scleractinia) de la costa Atlantica de Costa Rica. Brenesia, 57-59 No. 22, 1984

White-lipped peccaries Tayassu pecari as predators y seed dispersers in Corcovado national park, Costa Rica Chanchos cariblancos Tayassu pecari como depredadores y dispersores de semillas en el Parque Nacional Corcovado, Costa Rica. Brenesia. Setiembre; 52: 53-59, 1999

New species of Sterphus Diptera Syrphidae from Costa Rica with notes on other species present in Costa Rica Nuevas especies de Sterphus Diptera Syrphidae de Costa Rica con notas sobre otras especies presentes en Costa Rica. Southwestern Entomologist. March; 221: 79-90, 1997

White grubs complex Phyllophaga spp, Anomala spp and Cyclocephala spp associated to agricultural crops of the Central Valey and Dry Pacific of Costa Rica Especies del complejo de jobotos Phyllophaga spp, Anomala spp y Cyclocephala spp asociadas a cultivos, en el Valle Central y Pacifico Seco de Costa Rica. Agronomia Mesoamericana, 82: 44-53, 1997

Use and handling of pesticides in the El Guarco Valley, Cartago, Costa Rica. Tecnologia en Marcha 12(2): 51-59, 1992